No doubt science has contributed a great deal to human welfare. It has contributed a lot to the development of human mind and for the comfort and welfare of the society. It has produced miraculous cures for diseases, which for a long time, were regarded incurable. It has brought marvels to industrialism, technology and space exploration. At the same time, science has created as many problems as it has helped to solve. It has led to an undue stress on materialism and economic barbarism in the absence of controlling mental and moral ideas. The knowledge of science need to be harnessed to the service of man through the culture – the finer sense and sensitivity of man. There are many aspects of life which the science of reason cannot possibly perceive. The dialectic of heart, the field of intuitive perception is areas beyond the realm of science.
Science is important for determining the cultural pattern of an age or country. The scientist is busy making a bid for conquering space and solving the riddles posed by time. Science has functioned like a panacea, producing miraculous cures for disease which, for a long time, were regarded incurable. But, applied science, which ushered in eras of industrialism and technology and all the marvels of space exploration, has also confronted humanity with numerous other diseases.
Indian Vedic Culture is scientific, whether we know it or do not know it. Science is not conceived of as an alternative to culture but rather as a central component of a Vedic Culture more broadly understood – a component that existed long before the term ‘science’ was coined and will long outlast current understandings of science as a specialized or privileged activity that can be engaged in only members of a self-perpetuating professional community.
Culture is the quest for a perfect blending of various faculties of mind. It is the spark of immortality that a race wins in its struggle against the power of negation. Culture implies the pursuit of perfection in all walks of life.
Here, my objective is not to disregard science but rather to encourage scientific community to critically examine the Vedic Culture which is not only ancient but also very scientific.
The needed critique of science is necessarily also a rethinking of the role of science in culture and hence of culture itself. It cannot be achieved without a very substantial blurring of the borders between those who think of themselves as scientists and those who think of themselves as something else. And the rethinking will, I believe, result in a further blurring of those borders in a way needed to make science an even more important contributor to the human culture, of which in fact, it is a part.
If I question, what is Science? And who is it for? Then a common answer would be Science is the quest for knowledge. It is the tool to understand nature and natural phenomenon. It is for mankind.
If we talk about our ‘modern science’, then we can definitely say that it is in fact not that modern, but was born nearly half a millennium ago and which can be found very prominently in our Vedic Culture of India. But, even if we think of great Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Dalton for their great discoveries, the same discovery can be found in our Vedic Texts like Mahabharat and Srimad Bhagavat. The Laws of Gravitation, the great Atomic Theory is already there in our Vedic texts since time immemorial. The so-called modern science was a part of our Vedic Culture at the time of Renaissance.
From the uses of turmeric in food while cooking, massaging mustard oil while bathing to worshipping Holy Basil, Peeple Tree, Bael Tree, Banyan Tree are all in our culture. I think all the scientific community will agree to the benefits that carried the above things in our life.
Something to ponder: People believe Indians were unscientific & uneducated earlier. Can someone ask them if that’s the case, how can such magnificent structures like Konark (Sun temple) , Kanchi , (Sri Ranganath Swamy Temple) , Madurai (Meenakshi Temple), Radha Govind temple in Vrindavan, Tejomoholaya which is Taj Mahal , etc. Palaces like ones in Rajasthan , Tipu Palace, and many to cite here, archeological cities like Dwarka, Universities like Takshashila , Nalanda ever come up ? And what else? Even the Invention of Binary system made in Ancient India by Pingala Rishi – Binary numbers form the basis for the operation of computers. Binary numbers were discovered in the west by German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz in 1695. However, new evidence proves that binary numbers were used in India prior to 4 BC, more than 2000 years before their discovery in the west.
Ancient Indian sages were scholars of very high order, but they did not give their inner realizations, the name of science, but laws of nature ordained by God. During long foreign rule, hostile to India’s culture and civilization, a vast body of scientific information created by India’s sages was lost. However much of the scholarly work done by our sages in south India survived and preserved due to the reason that – that part our country was free of foreign invasion for a long time. We need to rediscover the forgotten contributions of ancient India in the field of science. One of these discoveries is that of the use of Binary numbers for the classification of musical meters.
The source of this discovery is a text of music by Pingala named “Chhandahshastra” meaning science of meters. This text falls under the category of “Sutra” or aphorismic statements. Detailed discussions of these needs further commentaries. “Chhandahshastra” can be conservatively dated to at least 4 BC.A
Few Ancient Indian Contributions to Physics :
|Theory/Concept||Indian Origin||Western Origin|
|Velocity of Light||Maharishi Sayan Vasya, Rig Veda 1400 AD||19th Century|
|Atomic Theory||Srimad Bhagavat 4000 BCE||17th Century|
|Planetary Systems||Mahabharat, Srimad Bhagavat 3000 BCE – 4000 BCE||17th Century|
|About other Solar Systems||Srimad Bhagavat 4000 BCE||More research required|
|The Law of Gravitation||Prasno-Upanishad 6000 BCE||15th Century Sir Issac Newton|
|Nuclear Energy||Mundako Upanishad 6000 BCE||19th Century|
|Robot||Samarangam Sutradhara 1050 AD||16th Century|
|Electrical Cells||Agastya Samhita 4000 BCE||Daniel 1836|
|Black Holes||Viswaruchi 7000 BCE||18th Century|
|Elleptical order of Planets||Rig Veda 6000 BCE||Johnes Kepler 16th Century|
|Infra Red Band||Sulohita 1200 BCE||17th Century|
|Monsoon at Summer Solstice||Rig Veda 6000BCE||18th Century|
|Trans – Saturnean Planents||Mahabharat 3000 BCE||17th Century|
James Clerk Maxwell (18th Century AD) Versus Srimad Bhagavat (400BCE)
(The year 1873, by many accounts, was a seminal point in the history of the development of the concept of the “molecule”. In this year, the renowned Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published his famous thirteen page article ‘Molecules’ in the September issue of Nature. In the opening section to this article, Maxwell clearly states:
An atom is a body which cannot be cut in two; a molecule is the smallest possible portion of a particular substance.) *Source: Wikipedia
What Srimad Bhagavat says on Atoms and Molecules?
Charamah Sad Vishesanamanekosamyutah Sadah |
Paramanuh Sa Bignyo Nrunamaikabhramo Yatah || Ref. 3/11/1, Srimad Bhagavat
It means, the minutest particle of material substance (which cannot be further divided), which has not yet evolved, nay, not even been combined with other similar particles and hence eternally exists (in that casual state) should be known by the name of Paramanu. It is the combination of more than one such Paramanus that creates in the mind of man the illusory notion of a unit.
Anudou Paramanu Syattrasarenustrayah Smruthah |
Kalark Rasmyabagatha Khamebanupatannagat || Ref. 3/11/five, Srimad Bhagavat
It means, two Paramanus make one Anu; while three Anus constitute a Trasarenu, seen floating in space through the Sun ray’s that enter a room through the eye-holes of a lattice.
Rishi Kannad (2nd Century BCE) Versus Sir Isaac Newton (16th Century AD)
1st Law of Motion :
Kannad: Begah Nimittviseshat Karmno Jayate.
Newton: The change of motion is due to impressed force
2nd Law of Motion :
Kannad: Begah Nimittapekshyat Karmano Jayate Niyandik Kriya Prabandh Hetu.
Newton: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and is made in the direction of the right line in which the force is impressed.
3rd Law of Motion:
Kannad: Begah Sanyogaviseshabirodhi
Newton: To every action there an equal and opposite action.
Some researcher also says that Mararishi Bhaskaracharya also has written many Slokas on Gravitation in his Classic ‘Siddhanta Siromani’, 500 years prior to Newton discovered the Gravitational Law.1
The credit of discovery of law of gravitation goes to Sir Iassac Newton. In the year 1666, Newton has discovered it. That means, is such a simple law of gravitation just discovered only three hundred fifty years back? ….No, I am not agreed to this as a thinking animal. We all read in school that the law of gravitation is the discovery of Newton; but nearly five hundred years prior to Newton’s discovery, Maharishi Bhaskaracharya has already written a treatise on the power of gravitation. Bhaskaracharya was one of the great mathematicans and astronomers of India. He was took birth on 1114. He was the head of the Ayurvedic Dispensary-cum-hospital, situated at Ujjain. This hospital was the hub of mathematical and astronomical research during those days. He was only 36 years old when he wrote ‘Siddhanta Siromani’. ‘Siddhanta Siromani’ was a classic on astro-physics, having four sections, viz., 1) Lilabati 2) Airthmatics 3) Chapter related to circle (Goladdhya) 4) Chapter related to Planet and Mathematics (Graha-Ganitaddhya).
Lilabati was the name of daughter of Bhaskaracharya. The father named the first portion of his book after his daughter’s name. This portion was written as the conversation between father and daughter. In Lilabati, the formulas of Mathematics and Astronomy was described in simple poetic form.
Now, the question arises on what is ‘Siddhanta’? Literally ‘Siddhanta’ means finally it is taken as conclusion after thorough observation and analysis. BChandrasekhar has given in the 17th Sloka of first chapter of ‘Siddhanta Darpana’ the characterstics of Siddhanta as
Yatra Trutyadikalah Pralayacharmakah Khecharanam Pracharah
Prasnashaiwottarani dwidhaganitampyubhdrabo Bhutarasheh |
Khshetraddyam gaddyate saddgnakaganawarriresha Siddhanta Uktah || 1/17 Siddhanta Darpana (‘Siddhanta Darpana’ is composed of twenty-four (24) chapters having 2500 shlokas, out of which 2284 are Samanta’s own compositions and 216 are citations from earlier authors. It is broadly divided into two parts, viz. Purbardha (first half) and Uttararadha (latter half). The first-half contains fifteen (15) chapters grouped into three sections called adhikar derived from the word adhyaya. The three sections are called Madhyamadhikara, Spastadhikara and Triprasnadhikara, Madhyamadhikara deals with means positions of planets (Madhyama means average or mean), obtained by assuming that they move in circular orbits with uniform velocity. Thus it deals with the time span beginning from the smallest unit of ‘Truti’ (0.27434 x 10-6sec.) to ‘Pralaya’ (1013 solar years), along with the motion of the celestial bodies comprising their revolution, alignments, occultation, orbits and eclipses etc. with the relevant mathematical tools like arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry etc. It has to be also concerned with the question of the origin of the universe.) B
An in-depth study of ‘Siddhanta Siromani’ shows that, this work embodies all these features adequately. This has been written in terms of beautiful Sanskrit shlokas following the time honored Vedic Tradition. In addition to being a scientific treatise, it is a fine piece of Sanskrit poetry of considerable significance. ‘Siddhanta Siromani’ is one of the pioneer text in the field of calculation of so many things and so many laws of nature – written by Maharishi Bhaskaracharya. To name a few famous books related to this ‘Siddhanta’ are ‘Suryasphuta’ – it is said to be the first Siddhanta Book on Aryan Civilization. The author and the time of preparing this book is anonymous. Aryabhatta, Barahamihira, Brahmagupta, Lallu, Sripatti, Satananda, Kamabhatta, Kuchanacharya, Bhaskar and Chandrasekhar were few stalwarts of Siddhantic Tradition.
CPursuit of Astronomy as science has been undertaken in India right from the Vedic age. The tradition of its systematic study on a strong scientific basis, commenced with Aryabhatt in fifth Century AD. In this tradition, Samanta Chandrasekhar (1835-1904) was the last link in the long chain of astronomers India produced, in a period of spanning over a millennium and half. It will be interesting and also inspiring to know the ultimate status of the knowledge of the sky, achieved by Indian astronomers through naked eye observations, in their long quest of several thousand years.C Samanta Chandrasekhar being the last naked-eye astronomer of the Siddhantic tradition, his treatise Siddhanta Darpana would represent the state-of-the-art and the zenith of success finally reached in the branch of science.
Maharishi Bhaskaracharya says that the power of matters is very interesting in nature.
Marudhalo Bhurachala Swabhabato yato bichitrabata-bastu Saktyah ||
Golladhya – Bhubanakosha (Siddhanta Siromani)
Aakrustisaktischa mahi taya yat khastam,
Gurutwbhimukham Swasakttya |
Aakrudyate Tatpattoba bhati,
Samesamntat kwa patatwiyam khe | Golladhya – Bhubanakosha (Siddhanta Siromani)
It means Earth has power of attraction. By this Earth attracts matters towards it and for this attraction, matters fall down on earth. But, when the power is uniform in all direction in the sky, then no object falls. For this reason, the planetary systems and others stars and planets maintains their uniformity in the sky.
Ancient Indian Scientific theories were based on minute understanding of observations of centuries and based on experience and logic. The theories, without much tools and machines, were based on minute understanding of observations of centuries. That wisdom must be recognized as that wisdom has relevance today.
Now, it is up to us to decide who discovered the Law of Gravitation! Maharishi Bhaskaracharya or Sir Isaac Newton? The opinion of this author is that natural laws are universal and that same can be witnessed by anyone at any point of time, provided he has the intuition to promptly realize. So it is wise to accept everything broadly and after all – all natural laws are made for us, quite naturally.
Similarly, Maharishi Bharadwaj wrote about Viman (Airoplane), 7000 years ago in his treatise ‘Viman Samhita’. Further research is required to explore this ancient science – after all science is for mankind.
Indians have been very conscious of environment from time immemorial, and to them the issue of environment in all its dimensions is not new. Indian Vedic Culture teaches to take care of environment to all its citizens. For the Indians, the relationship with the nature starts every morning, when many recite Gayatri Mantra as invocation to the Sun at Sunrise and again in the evening. The Mantra says, I meditate upon the glorious splendor of vivifier divine, He Himself may illumine our mind. Our ancestors knew that we are all a product of Nature and that’s the reason why they pray nature in all their devotion. The Vedic Gods such as Agni (Fire), Surya (Sun), Vayu (Air), Bhumi (Earth), Varuna (Water) and Indra (thunder and rain), together represent atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and sunlight and energy. These along with biotic wealth make the basic elements of earth’s biosphere which is auto-sustainable and self-generating. Much has been said about the importance of these elements and environment in general in our Culture through the timeless masterpieces like Veda, Mahabharat, Ramayana, Upanishad, Purans, Smrutis, Yoga-Shastras, Samhitas etc. In fact, all the texts were written in the sylvan surroundings of forests, the like of which have never been written in the air-conditioned rooms of the present technological age.
The word ‘Paryavarana’ which is frequently used for Environment is originated from Sanskrit that carries the meaning which encircles us, which is all around in our surroundings. The word ‘Paribesa’ or ‘Environment’ is rooted in Vedic Philosophy which defines that what we observe around us. Earth, Water, Ether or Sky, Air, Trees, Creatures etc constitute Environment. (Asman paritah yah drusyamanah asti sah ‘Paribesah’ | Bhumih, Jalam, Gaganam, Vayuh, Brukshyah, Jeevah, Ityadayah Paribesah iti parichitah | )
According to one indigenous theory established in the Veda and Upanishad, the Universe consists of five basic elements2 (the Pancha Mahabhuta) viz., Earth or Land (Khit), Water (Apah), Light or luster (Tej or Agnih), Air (Vayuh) and Ether (Byoma or Akash).3 In Nature, there is an inbuilt system of balancing these constituents or elements and living creatures. A disturbance in percentage of any constituent of the environment beyond certain limits disturbs the natural balance and any change in the natural balance causes lots of problems to the living creatures in the universe. All constituents of the Environment are connected with a subtle web with one another. The relation of human being with environment is very natural as he cannot survive without it. From the very beginning of creation he wants to know about it for self protection and self survival. Our Vedic Philosophy which is otherwise known as Sanatan (Eternal) Darshan (Philosophy) considers Vedic Aryans are children of nature. They studied nature closely in sylvan surroundings – very minutely. They have realized that Nature is extremely powerful and reason for everything happens in nature, be it directly or indirectly. Nature is self-sustaining, self-repairing and self-abiding, whether we know it or do not know it. The verse Ritam Badisyami, Satyam Badisyamiwhich means I will tell about the laws of nature and I will speak, only the truth; is the Pramana (Proof) of their study. Ritamis defined variously by scholars in different Vedic Contexts, but in general sense it has been elaborated as great ‘cosmic order’ which is the cause of all motion and existence, and keeps world in order. No one can ignore it, even Devatas are abided by the Ritam – the cosmic law and they are born of Ritam. It is controlling and sustaining power acts behind all natural phenomena. It sustains sun in the sky. It as Universal Law governs everything. The whole of the universe is working under Ritam.
Sand-storm and cyclone, intense lightening, terrific thunderclaps, the heavy rush of rain in monsoon, the swift flood in the stream that comes down from the hills, the scorching heat of the sun, the cracking red flames of the fire, all witness to power beyond man’s power. The Vedic sages felt the greatness of these forces. Therefore, they worshiped and prayed them due to regard and gratitude. They realized instinctively that action, movement, creation, change and destruction in nature are the results of forces beyond man’s control and thus they attributed towards divinity of nature. The laws behind all natural phenomena are constant and fresh phenomena are continually reproduced, but the principle of order remains the same; therefore, the principle existed already when the earliest phenomena appeared.
Rishis – the Vedic Seers have a great vision about universe. The universe consists of three interlinked webs, viz., Prithivi, Antariksha and Dyava. Prithivi, the Earth, Antariksha, the aerial or intermediate region which is between heaven and earth, and Dyava, the heaven or sky is very well established in the Vedic texts. Prithivi can be a scientific name – ‘observer space’. It is our space, the space in which we live and die whatever we can see and observe. All living creatures come under the universal principle of: Asti, Jayate, Bardhate, Biparinamate, Apakshiyate, Nasyati. It means, it is there (Asti), then it takes birth (jayate), then it grows (bardhate), then it starts to turn reversely (biparinamate), then it starts to decay (apakshiyate) and at last it decomposes (nasyati). From one end of the universe to the other end is the expanse of Prithivi, and that what the name Prithivi means: the broad and extended one. Dyava can be termed as ‘light space’ because light propagates in this space. Antariksha can be termed as ‘Intermediate space’ as this space exists in between observer space and light space.
The concept of the form of the earth in Rig Veda is very fascinating. There is one small hymn addressed to Prithivi, while there are six hymns addressed to Dyava-Prithivi. Prithivi is considered the mother and Dyava is considered as Father and they form a pair together. One of the most beautiful verse of the Rig Veda says, ‘Heaven is my father, brother atmosphere is my navel, and the great earth is my mother. Heaven and earth are parents: Matarah, Pitarah, Janitarah in union while separately called as father and mother. They sustain all creatures. They are great and widespread. In Atharva Veda, the earth is described in one hymns called as Bhumi Sukta or Prithivi Sukta which indicates the environmental consciousness of Vedic Rishis. The Rishis appear to have advanced understanding of the earth through this hymn. Earth is called as Vasudha for containing all wealth, Hiranyagarva for having gold and treasures. The earth is called Visvambhara because it is the representatives of the universe. This is wide earth which supports varieties of herbs, oceans, rivers, mountains, hills etc. The earth is fully responsible for our food and prosperity. It is praised for its strength. It served us day and night.
According to Atharva Veda, Vayu cannot mean air alone. Apparent meaning of Vayu is air. The Vedic seers knew the importance of air for life. They understood all about the air in the atmosphere and also about the air inside the body. The Taittiriya Upanishad throws light on five types of wind inside the body: Prana, Vyana, Apanna, Udanna, Samana. Rig Veda mentions with its verse ‘Twameva Pratekshyam Brahmasi, Twameva Pratekshyam Brahma Vadisyami’ – ‘Oh Air! You are our father, the protector. Air has medicinal values. Let wind blow in the form of medicine and bring me welfare and happiness. Another verse describes characteristics of air – ‘The air is the soul of all deities. It exists in all as life-breath. It can move everywhere. We cannot see it. Only one can hear its sound. We pray to Vayu Devata. Vedic Arayans, therefore, emphasized that the unpolluted, pure air is source of good health, happiness and long and cherished life. Vayu Devata is prayed to blow with its medicinal qualities.4
Modern Environmentalists discuss sound or noise pollution. There is a relation between ether and sound. The sound waves move in sky at various frequencies. Scientists could see the sky which exists only in the vicinity of earth. Taittiriya Upanishad throws light on two types of ether, i.e. , Mathakash and Chidakash; i.e., one inside the body and the other outside the body . The ether (Akash) inside the body is regarded as the seat of mind. So, the Yajur Veda advices humanity not to pollute the sky.
Decades ago, when environment was not a buzz word, Vedic Philosophy through Isho Upanishad had taught us One should enjoy with renouncing or giving up others part vide its first Mantra … Tena tyaktena bhunjitha ma gridhah kasya swid dhanam.
Modern Scientists should be astonished and also feel proud of Vedic Philosophy for its knowledge, wisdom and views about environment. Ancient Seers knew about various aspects of environment, about cosmic order, and also about the importance of co-ordination between all natural laws for universal peace and harmony. When they pray for peace at all level in the Shanti Mantras, they express their belief about the importance of inter-relationship among all natural laws, people, and regions. The Shanti Mantra, ‘Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah, Sarve Santu Niramayah, Sarve Bhadrani Pasyantu, Ma Kashit Dukhah Bhag Bhavet’ – says that not only regions, waters, plant trees, natural laws and energies, but all creatures should live in harmony and peace. Peace should remain everywhere. It is pretty clear that Vedic vision to live in harmony with environment was not merely physical but was far wider and sensitive. The Vedic people desired to live a life of hundred years (Jivema Sarad Satam, Pasyame Sarad Satam… Rig. Veda) and this wish can be fulfilled only when environment would be unpolluted, clean and peaceful. The knowledge of Vedic Philosophy is meant to save the humanity from falling into utter darkness of ignorance. The unity in diversity (Sam Gachhadhwam, Sam Badadhwam …. Sangyan Suktam, Rig. Veda)is the message of Vedic physical and metaphysical sciences. Essence of the environmental studies in the Vedas can be put here by quoting a partial mantra of Ishoupanishad, Mantra, 1 (Ishavasya Midagwam Sarvam…..). The message is clear that environment belongs to all living beings, so it needs protection by all, for the welfare of all. Hence, for global harmony, Vedic seers always pray for the welfare of all creatures and all regions. Thus, the study proves the origin of environmental studies has come up from Vedic Philosophy.5
Long before ecology became the refrain of the global song at Stockholm and Rio, the ancient India – our Vedic Civilization had already a sacred space for the environmental ethos. The Vedic Culture had always promoted the principle of ecological harmony centuries ago – not because the world was perceived as heading for an environmental disaster, nor because of any immediate utilitarian exigency, but through its quest for knowledge and physical symbiosis, synthesized in a system of ethical awareness and moral responsibility. 6 The Vedic Hymn to the Earth, the Prithivi Sukta in Atharva Veda is undoubtedly the oldest and the most sensible environmental invocation. One of the Mantra says ‘Mata Bhumih Putro Aham Prithibyah, which means Earth is my mother, I am the Son of Earth. Earth – the Mother is celebrated for all her natural bounties and particularly for her gifts of herbs (Banaspati) and vegetation.
Challenges facing mankind on the environmental front have become truly global and pressing. Apprehensions are expressed that without remedial measures, we may face the bleak prospect of the collapse of the lifestyle that different societies presently enjoy. On the other hand, never before in the history have there ever been attempts on the same scale as we witness today, of the third world countries seeking to usher in socio-economic development to provide for people, the means to realize self fulfillment and create a society which is genuinely harmonious and free from want and deprivation. It is increasingly realized that the human race stands at the crossroads in choosing the options it has in the areas of environment and development. The industrial countries, having enjoyed more than their share of development, have achieved a decent standard of living. This has given to the earth pollution and eco-degradation as a result of affluence and underlying greed. It has now become clear that such patterns of development, life styles and quality of life are unsustainable. On the contrary, the developing countries are still struggling for minimum levels of sustenance. No doubt, they too have contributed to the eco-degradation and pollution, but this is essentially need and poverty based. Before we reach a point of no return, we must take tangible steps and follow a road that leads to sustainability.7
Now, it is a million dollar question for all great professionals and academicians that have expertise in the Philosophy of Science and the History of Science to look at how science reached great heights several thousand years ago and to look at how and why that beautiful culture of our country disappeared.
Many machines and appliances that we buy these days come with an instruction manual and a guarantee card. The Company assures us that the machine will outlive the guarantee period if used according to the instructions given. Malfunction or breakdown is caused due to abuse or misuse. The human body and mind is the best made machine in the creation. It is guaranteed to live for at least a hundred years in a healthy condition if it is guided by our culture which is very scientific – whether we know it or do not know it.
I humbly acknowledge the works of all Sages and Seers of our Ancient Civilizations and also scientists who have expanded our horizon of thinking.
I am also thankful to Prof. Prasanna Karabara, a Retired English Professor from for the proof reading and for making little additions and alterations.
Ideas and References made from:
- Various sources including the Net.
- Science and Spirituality related Scriptures from Gita Press viz., Srimad Bhagabat, Puranas, ‘Kannad Samhita’ and ‘Siddhant Siromani’ by Maharishi Bhaskaracharya.
- L. Satapathy : Samanta Chandra Sekhar and his Contributions to Ancient Indian Astronomy. Page: 12 & 13
- Ancient Indian Astronomy and contributions of Samanta Chandra Sekhar, Edited By L. Satapathy
- Srimad Bhagavat and Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Vedic Physics, Scientific Origin of Hinduism
- Aitareya Upanisha, 3.3
- Yajurveda 1.24; Shatapatha Bra. 22.214.171.124
Taittiriya Upanishad, 2.4
- Yajurveda 36.1; Atharvaveda 19.9.94; A.C.Bose, The Call of the Vedas,
Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai,1999, P.281
6) Origin of Environmental Science by Sashi Tiwari
7)A Compendium of Essays, P.393
Nihar Ranjan Acharya, Founder, TRUST